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Anarhism si Arta

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Anarhismul a fost de mult timp asociat cu artele creative, in mod particular cu muzica si literatura. A impartasit aceste trasaturi altor miscari radicale politice, cum ar fi socialismul, comunismul, si chiar fascismul. O parte din aceasta arta, va fi cooptata partial de industria capitalista (proces numit "recuperare" de catre situationisti. Influenta anarhismului nu e neaparat o problema de imagine sau figuri publice, dar poate fi privita in postura in care induce eliberarea fiintei umane si a imaginatiei.

Privire de ansamblu

Anarhismul a avut o mare influenta asupra Simbolismului francez la sfarsitul secolului al IXX-lea, cum ar fi cel al lui Stéphane Mallarmé, care a fost citat spunand "Je ne sais pas d'autre bombe, qu'un livre." (Nu cunosc alta bomba, decat cartea.) Ideile s-au infiltrat in cafenele si cabarete ale Parisului din acea vreme (vezi the Drunken Boat #2).

Mai mult, anarhistii sustin ca eforturile apartin grupului Dada, ale caror manifestari anti-burghezie au provocat Elvetiei mari pagube in timpul celui de-al Doilea Razboi Mondial, desi, pe de alta parte, se poate spune ca Dadaistii au fost foarte aproape de Council Communists, avand mult material publicat in Die Aktion.

Multi artisti americani ai secolului XX au fost influentati de ideile anarhiste, daca nu cumva au fost chiar anarhisti.Scoala Ashcan de realism american includea anarhisti americani, dar si artisti cum ar fi Rockwell Kent si George Bellows care au fost influentati de ideile anarhiste. Expresionismul abstract includea si artisti anarhisti ca Mark Rothko si pictori precum Jackson Pollock, care a adoptat idei radicale de-a lungul experientei lui ca muralist pentru Administratia Progresului Muncii. Tatal lui fusese un Wobbly.

David Weir sustinea in Anarchy and Culture(Anarhie si cultura) ca anarhismul a avut succes dor in sfera avandardismului cultural din cauza esecului in a deveni o miscare politica; cunoscator al intentiilor anarhismului de a depasi bariera dintre arta si activismul politic, Weir sustine ca aceste lucruri nu au fost obtinute in realitate. Weir sugereaza ca pentru ideolog ar fi posibil a adapta "estetica la politica", dar ca "din perspectiva unui poet" o solutie ar fi a "adapta politica la estetica". El identifica cea de-a doua strategie cu anarhismul, din cazua individualismului acestuia. De asemenea, a sugerat ca "strategia critica contemporana a politicii estetizate" intre marxisti ca Fredric Jameson, e un produs al sfarsitului marxismului ca ideologie de stat. Situatia in care ideologia incearca sa opereze in afara politicii, a indreptat deja Marxismul catre cultura postmodernista, asa cum si anarhismul s-a mutat intr-o cultura a modernismului cand a incetat sa fie valid politic.

La sfarsitul secolului XX, anarhismul si arta ar fi putut fi asociate in principal cu lucrari alea lui James Koehnline, Johan Humyn Being si alea altora, care au avut lucrari publicate in reviste anarhiste precum Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed and Fifth Estate. The Living Theatre, un grup teatral condus de Judith Malina si Julian Beck, a fost deschis in ceea ce priveste anarhismul, incorporant astfel teme anarhiste in piese.

In anii '90, anarhistii au fost implicat in miscarea mail art, care poate fi descrisa ca "arta care foloseste sistemul postal intr-un fel". Aceasta se leaga de implicarea a multor anarhisti in miscarea zine. Si multi anarhisti contemporani sunt implicati in a face arta prin intermediul afiselor, sabloanelor, si a marionetelor(radical puppets)

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"O lumea anarhista... o lumea suprereala: Sunt la fel."("An anarchist world... a surrealist world: They are the same.") —Andre Breton.

Anarhismul, in mod traditional, a accentuat eliberarea imaginatiei si subiectivitatea in fata constrangerilor ordinii sociale prezente, deci nu e de mirare faptul ca multi anarhisti au fost atrasi de activitatea suprarealistilor.

Suprarealismul este atat o miscare artistica, cat si una politica, indreptata catre eliberarea fiintei umane de constrangerile capitalismului, ale statului si de fortlele culturale ce limiteaza puterea imaginatiei. Micarea s-a dezvoltat in Franta deodata cu Pimul Razboi Mondial, avandu-l ca principal teoretician si poet pe Andre Breton. Originar, a fost strans legat de Partidul Comunist. Apoi, Breton, bun priten fiind cu Leon Trosky, a despreins curentul de Partidul Comunist.


Numerosi artisti au fost fie inspirati de conceptele anarhieste, fie, prin intermediul muzicii si a sunetului, au promovat ideile sau politica anarhista.

Punk rock-ul e una din miscarile care s-a inspirat in mare masura din imagistica puternica si simbolismul asociat cu anarhismul si situationismul retoric, daca nu intotdeauna cu teoria politica. In ultimele decenii, anarhismul a fost tot mai mult asociat cu miscarea punk rock, si a crescut din cauza acestei asocieri (indiferent de efectele pe care le-a avut asupra miscarii). Intr-adevar, multi anarhisti au cunoscut ideile anarhiste prin acel simbolism si sentimentul anti-autoritar pe care il transmiteau multe melodii punk rock.

Anarho-punk-ul, pe de alta parte, este un curent preocupat in mod explicit cu politicile anarhiste, in special, in cazul trupelor precum Crass, Poison Girls, Chumbawamba, The Ex, Flux of Pink Indians, Rudimentary Peni, Riot/Clone, Conflict, Propagandhi si altele. Multe alte trupe, in special la nivel local, au inceput ceea ce se numeste "punk" sau etica "DIY": ceea ce inseamna, a face ceva singur(doing it yourself), un slogan popular anarho-punk "DIY nu EMI facand referire la o respingere constienta a unei case de discuri. Unele grupuri care au inceput ca 'anarho-punk' au incercat sa-si mute ideile in aria mainstream, de exemplu, Chumbawamba, care continua sa sustina si sa promoveze politica anarhista in ciuda faptului ca acum au adoptat un stil influentat de muzica dance si pop.

Muzica Techno este, de asemenea, strans legata de anahisti si eco-anarhisti, pentru ca multe din evenimentele de acest gen erau auto-organizate si desfasurate in contradictie cu legile nationale. De multe ori, usile unor depozite sunt scoase, iar interioarele transformate in cluburi ilegale cu intrare, fie foarte ieftina, fie libera, stiluri de muzica nemaiauzite isi fac aparitia si de multe ori abunda abuzul de droguri. Alteori, aceste manifestari sunt tinute afara, si nu sunt vazute pozitiv de autoritati. In UK, Legea Justitiei Criminale(1994), a interzis aceste evenimente(raves) si a coalizat socialisti, raveri si cei ce sustineau actiunea directa care se opuneau introducerii acestui act al Parlamentului, organizand o mare 'petrecere-protest' in centrul Londrei, care a dat nastere celor mai mari revolte a anilor '90 in Anglia. Digital hardcore-ul, un gen al muzicii electronice este de asemenea anarhist; Atari Teenage Riot este cea mai cunosuta trupa de acest gen. Trbuie surprins faptul ca nici Digital Hardcore-ul, nici muzica Techno si nici alte genuri inrudite nu sunt tinute la pastrare de anarhisti; oameni cu multe si diferite orientari muzicale, politice, recreationale sunt implicati in aceasta scena muzicala.

Folk punk-ul sau "folkul radical" s-a raspandit din ce in ce mai mult in cultura de protest, prin artisti ca Riot-Folk! Collective sau David Rovics subliniind in mod deschis convingerile anarhiste.

Artisti si lucrari inspirate de anarhism

Arta Vizuala


Vezi: Lista artistilor anarhisti



Vezi si


  • Martin B. Duberman
    • Mother earth : an epic drama of Emma Goldman's life (1991)
  • Tom Stoppard
    • The Coast of Utopia (A Trilogy) (2002)
  • Howard Zinn
    • Emma : a play in two acts about Emma Goldman, American anarchist (2002)


Vezi si

Link-uri externe